Ancient History Encyclopedia. "Michael III." Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα, Medieval Greek: c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855.For her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm, she is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church; her Feast Day is 11 February. Constantinople mint. Ancient History Encyclopedia. "Theodora & Michael III." Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Theodora, Empress and Her Son, Emperor Michael III The Byzantine Empress Theodora Only a few women reached the zenith of power in the male-dominated world of the Byzantines. Michael was generally kept in the background, even overshadowed on the coins by his sister Thecla. 11 Jan 2021. His reign did play a role in the resurgence of Byzantine power during the 9th century, but he was also dominated by his mother Theodora. (British Museum, London). The pair also had a complex, ill-defined and much-debated relationship with Eudokia Ingerina -  Basil actually marrying her but this may have been a ruse on Michael’s part to have his mistress close at hand in the palace. Whoever was responsible, the Byzantine empire was on the up again. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Byzantines were certainly concerned that the Bulgars might forge a powerful alliance with the Franks but Boris, too, may have been keen to court Constantinople as an ally. Theodora’s great moment with the Church is commemorated in a famous Constantinople icon which dates from the early 15th century CE but is itself a copy of an older one. In his new role Basil removed, by any means he saw fit, the enemies of the emperor. Bardas had no qualms about assassinating his brother-in-law Theoktistos so that his nephew, still in his teens, could be more easily manipulated by himself. Theodora & Michael IIIby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). She was wed to the newly crowned Theophilus in AD 830 following a "bride show" in which eligible maidens from all over the Empire were paraded before the young emperor. DOC III 1d.3; SB 1686. Michael III. They had 4 children: Andronikos II Palaiologos and 3 other children . Thank you! Ancient History Encyclopedia. Image. THEODORA, BYZANTINE EMPRESS (2) Reigned 842 to 855; wife of theophilus (reigned 829 – 842), mother of michael iii (842 – 867), saint in the Orthodox Church; b.Paphlagonia, c. 810; d. Constantinople, 862. Fol­low­ing the death of her hus­band, Theodora served as re­gent for her son Michael. 08 Jan 2021. She even spread the rumour he had repented of his sins on his deathbed. Military victories and the strengthening of the empire’s eastern borders, in particular, were also thanks to experienced generals rather than Michael if the official records are to be believed. Michael had an older sister, Thekla, and the two siblings appear on the reverse of goldcoins minted by their mother. Just to be on the safe side and ensure no negative fall-out for her son, Theodora made sure that Theophilos was not condemned by the Church as a heretic for his policy on the destruction of icons. Little is know about the early life of Theodora, who rose to become one of the most famous women in Western civilization. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in 840, Michael III had just turned two years old … The family of Theodora seems to have followed her to court. Michael III (856–867) The reign of Michael is a reign of regents and advisors. Theodora, a long time closet iconophile despite her late husband’s opposite policy, saw to it that the veneration of icons was restored as Christian orthodoxy in March 843 CE. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Although an important primary source for the life of Theodora and the era in whic… Michael was a child of two years when his father Theophilus died in 842 AD. Byzantine regent Theodora and her young son, the emperor Michael III (r. 842-867 CE). Michael had an older sister, Thekla, and the two siblings appear on the reverse of gold coins minted by their mother. Miguel iii.a 867ko irailean hil baino lehen, Eudokia Ingerinak Leon VI.a Jakituna erditu zuen. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The Byzantines then destroyed the army of Umar, emir of Melitene, on the northern Mesopotamian frontier in 863 CE. Michael III Crowns Basil Co-emperorby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Theodora III Porphyrogenita (Greek: Θεοδώρα Πορφυρογενίτη, Theodōra Porphyrogenítē; c. 980 – 31 August 1056) was Byzantine Empress from 19 April 1042 to her death on 31 August 1056. The balance of available evidence supports a birthdate in January 840. Fundamentals of Statistics Plus MyLab Statistics with Pearson eText... Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data -Stand alone, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 16 Nov 2017. Her brothers became officials and her sisters married into the court aristocracy. Thank you! Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. Basil’s skills with horses led him to be put in charge of the imperial stables - Michael was a keen charioteer - and from there, when spotted by the emperor, he was made guardian of the imperial bedroom (parakoimomenos). Ioannes Scylitzes, Synopsis historiarum; Theophanes continuatus License. Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. Michael tertius et postremus Imperator Dynastiae Phrygianae fuit.. Fontes de vita et principatu. His mother Theodora was effective ruler of the empire, and the first coinage of his reign gives her prominence of position. Theodora, who ruled as regent for Michael III during his long minority, was one of the more successful female Byzantine rulers. Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. The chief minister also organised the mission of Saint Cyril and his brother Methodius to Moravia in 863 CE, and the baptism of the Bulgar Khan Boris I (r. 852-889 CE) in 864 CE. Cartwright, Mark. The word icon derives from the Greek eikon which is variously translated as 'image', 'likeness' or 'representation'. The Armenian assassin would turn out to be just as treacherous to his sponsor, though, and he murdered Michael in his bedchamber in 867 CE, claiming the throne for himself under the title Basil I. Michael’s epithet as a drunkard derived from critical court chroniclers eager to please his assassin and successor Basil I (r. 867-886 CE), founder of the Macedonian dynasty which would reign for 200 years. Last modified November 16, 2017. Image; SB 1687: Michael III, with Theodora. Even more extraordinary, in 866 CE Michael made Basil co-emperor in a lavish ceremony in Hagia Sophia. In 856 CE Petronas headed spectacular campaigns in Mesopotamia and Cappadocia but it is recorded that Michael too went on campaigns in person. Original image by Unknown Artist. Theodora (c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855. "Michael III." Familia. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. THEODORA EMPRESS, c. 867 . Artist, Unknown. The following year the use of icons was restored but with a conciliatory ecclesiastical policy toward the Iconoclasts. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The cities of Ankyra and Nicaea in Asia Minor were rebuilt as a result of these new gains. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Leaving his peasant family, he had sought his fortune in the metropolis of Constantinople and he certainly found it. Men like Petronas, the strategos or military governor of the Thrakesion region (theme) of the empire, were the real reason for success. Last modified November 15, 2017. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Byzantine regent Theodora and her young son, the emperor Michael III (r. 842-867 CE). He... A Short History of Byzantium by John Julius Norwich. Michael III Methysos, versus Latine fere Bibo (Graece: Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ο Μέθυσος; natus 19 Ianuarii 840, mortuus 23-24 Septembris 867) fuit Imperator Imperii Romani Orientalis ab 842 usque ad mortem. Theodora, a long time closet iconophile despite her late husband’s opposit… Michael was the youngest child of the emperor Theophilos and his empress Theodora. Artist, U. Michael III became Boris’ godfather to add a veneer of cordiality to the agreement. The young emperor seemed content with wine, parties and good companions rather than governing - Igantios, the Bishop of Constantinople, publicly rebuked the court for its immorality in 858 CE but he was dismissed for his troubles. It is, perhaps, significant that one of the first acts of the new emperor was to exhume Michael III’s body from his nondescript grave and entomb him in a fine marble sarcophagus in the Church of the Holy Apostles. Built in the seventh century BCE, the ancient city of Byzantium... Leo VI was emperor of the Byzantine empire from 886-912 CE. Michael III, also known as “Michael the Drunkard” by his detractors, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 842 to 867 CE. Social history is almost entirely neglected and what remains for modern historians to study is, unfortunately, woefully insufficient to comprehensively reconstruct such features of Byzantine history a… She car­ried on the gov­ern­ment with a firm and ju­di­cious hand; she re­plen­ished the trea­sury and de­terred the Bul­gar­i­ans from an at­tempt at invasion. AV Solidus (4.44 gm). Eventually, in 865 CE, Michael removed Bardas too but, in any case, he would enjoy his throne for less than two more years. Nevertheless, Theodora exerted influence at court, as demonstrated by her ordering the arrest and blinding of John the Eunuch, the powerful administrator who had been the chief minister of Romanos III, the brother of Michael IV, and the uncle of Michael V; he had lived in exile after the fall of Michael V.: 505 She was born of a wealthy family of partly Armenian origin. Never quite escaping the shadow of his mother Theodora, who ruled as regent in his name until c. 855 CE, or his uncle Bardas, the gifted chief minister, Michael’s reign nevertheless saw significant religious and political changes and a strengthening of the empire, especially in the east. It was an action which became known as the “Triumph of Orthodoxy” and one for which she was later made a saint. Theodora & Michael III. For her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm, she is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church; her Feast Day is 11 February. In 855-6 CE Michael overthrew his regents, eliminating Theoktistos and banishing his mother to a monastery, to finally claim the throne in his own right. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian Dynasty. Cite This Work In 856 CE Petronas headed spectacular campaigns in. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Michael III Crowns Basil Co-emperor. The portraits of Michael III and Theodora resemble those from the reverse of solidi which Grierson has dated to 843(? Neil Sheehan, Pentagon Papers reporter, Vietnam author, dies. Michael became a child emperor (Jan. 20, 842) upon the death of his father, Theophilus. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty. Ancient History Encyclopedia. 842-867 AD. Several churches hold her as their patron saint. Michael was born in 839 CE to Emperor Theophilos (r. 829-842 CE). Michael’s decision to mostly leave matters to Uncle Bardas was probably the best one of his reign. Bardas was held responsible for establishing the famous university in the Magnaura hall of the Royal Palace at Constantinople where one of the faculties was headed by Leo the Mathematician (and philosopher and inventor). However, it was still a family member who pulled the political strings at court, this time his uncle, Caesar Bardas, brother of Theodora. Cartwright, M. (2017, November 16). Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Web. How­ever, it was dur­in… Michael was born in 1224, in Constantinople, Byzantine Empire, Turkey. Theodora was a Byzantine empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855. She over­rode Theophilus' ec­cle­si­as­ti­cal pol­icy and sum­moned a coun­cil under the pa­tri­arch Method­ius, in which the ven­er­a­tion, but not wor­ship, of icons (im­ages of Jesus Christ and the saints) was fi­nally re­stored and the icon­o­clas­ticclergy de­posed. Theodora: Michael III (Greek: Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; 839 or 840 – 23/24 September, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. Theophilus maintained the restored iconoclastic policies initiated by Leo V in 813 after the first period of restoration of veneration under Empress Irene in the late eighth century. This exquisite fragment depicts the Archangel Michael. The youngest son would succeed his father as Emperor Michael III. During his minority, the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, her uncle Sergios, and the minister Theoktistos. Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα, c. 815 - after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III… Already crowned co-ruler by his father in his infancy in 840, Michael had just turned two years old when his father died, and Michael succeeded him as sole emperor on 20 January 842. She was born of humble origins at the beginning of the sixth centuryprobably in the year 500and died on June 28, 548. Paphlagonian jaioa, Theodora jatorri aristokratiko ... Michael iii.aren maitalea, Eudoki Ingerina, Basilio I.arekin ezkondu zen 865 inguruan. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. His case is by no means unique in Byzantine history and the murder of such a debauched good-time Charlie as Michael, in the official records at least, became not only entirely justifiable but absolutely necessary for the stability and holiness of the institution of emperor. Basil’s life was a classic rags-to-riches story. "Theodora & Michael III." Books Many of the significant events of Michael’s reign are credited to those family members who ruled in his name. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/image/7628/. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. By far the worst decision, though, was his monumental miscalculation of promoting a certain uncouth Armenian within the court and then instructing him to assassinate Bardas. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Michael_III/. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. In a final irony and perhaps a sweet revenge from beyond the grave, Basil’s successor, perhaps even his murderer, would be Leo VI (r. 886-912 CE), widely rumoured to actually have been the son of Michael III. Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. Two years of age at his father’s death, his mother Theodora and the logothete tou dromou Theoktistos effectively managed the government for fourteen years. Cartwright, Mark. Theodora passed away on month day 1303, at age 63 at death place . Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 16 November 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Unlike in many other medieval cultures, Byzantine history, as written by the people of the period themselves, almost exclusively focuses on the exaggerated deeds and misdemeanours of emperors along with a separate and equally problematic literatureon saints and squabbles over religious doctrine. The Byzantine Empire in the mid-9th century CE. Image. Life. The latter event was largely conducted under duress according to official records, Boris being threatened with invasion if he did not bow to Byzantine Christian supremacy and renounce paganism in his kingdom. When the aged and popular ruler died in 842 CE the powerful court eunuch and chief minister Theoktistos and Michael’s mother Theodora both governed as the new emperor’s regents. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 15 Nov 2017. [1] [2] She married Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria as his first wife. This item is in the public domain, and can be used, copied, and modified without any restrictions. The icon, known as "The Triumph of Orthodoxy", dates to the early 15th century CE but is itself a copy of an older one which commemorates the restoration of icons in the Christian Church in March 843 CE. She was born into the Macedonian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years. Amorian or Phrygian dynasty: Chronology: Michael II: 820–829 with Theophilos as co-emperor, 822–829 : Theophilos: 829–842 with Constantine (c. 833–835) and Michael III (840–842) as co-emperors : Michael III: 842–867 under Theodora and Theoktistos as regents, 842–855, and with Basil I the Macedonian as co-emperor 866–867 : Succession: Preceded by Leo V and the Nikephorian dynasty Theodora & Michael III. When the aged and popular ruler died in 842 CE the powerful court eunuch and chief minister Theoktistos and Michael’s mother Theodora both governed as the new emperor’s regents. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in 840, Michael III had just turned two years old when he succeeded as sole emperor on January 20, 842. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Artist, Unknown. 842-867 AD. Theodora, Michael III-aren ama. Theodora, however, secretly was a strong believer in veneration of icons. Uploaded by Mark Cartwright, published on 15 November 2017 under the following license: Public Domain. A map of the Byzantine Empire, c. 867 CE. Although the term may apply to any representation of a holy figure (Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, apostle, saint or archangel) in a mosaic, wall painting, or as small artworks made from wood, metal, gemstones, enamel, or ivory, it is most often used specifically for images painted on small portable wooden panels. SB 1687: Michael III, with Theodora. Web. AV Solidus (4.44 gm). https://www.ancient.eu/image/7628/. Michael III (b: January 19, 840; 842 – 867AD) was the third and last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian Dynasty. She is best known for her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Constantinople mint. Life. The stories may have been exaggerated but they had some truth in them, especially regarding the last five years of Michael’s reign. One of them was the 9th century Empress Theodora. Theodora (Bulgarian: Теодора) of Wallachia was the daughter of Basarab I of Wallachia (r. 1310–1352) and Lady Margareta. During her own marriage she bore Theophilus five daughters and two sons, the younger of whom became the future Michael III.. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Based on Wikipedia content that has been reviewed, edited, and republished. https://www.ancient.eu/Michael_III/. The icon, known as "The Triumph of Orthodoxy", dates to the early 15th century CE but is itself a copy of an older one which commemorates the restoration of icons in the Christian Church in March 843 CE. This shadowy figure, known as Basil the Macedonian because he had once spent time with a group of prisoners of that region, was a gifted wrestler and horseman of lowly birth. (2017, November 15). Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Michael III had no children by his wife Eudokia Dekapolitissa, but was believed to have fathered one or two sons by his mistress Eudokia Ingerina: Leo VI, who succeeded as emperor in 886. He was murdered and succeeded by the very man he had promoted in court and eventually appointed co-emperor, Basil I. Michael was born in 839 CE to Emperor Theophilos (r. 829-842 CE). A council of regency was set up, in which the dowager empress, Theodora, and her chief minister, Theoctistus, were the leading figures. The veneration of icons in the Christian Church was reinstated by Theoktistos and Theodora, as already seen. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Petronas had served under Michael’s father Theophilos, was the brother of Theodora, and it is true that he did much to ensure Byzantine military success abroad. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Thes… This marriage produced four children — Michael Asen, Ivan Sratsimir, Ivan Asen and Vasilisa. One area of discord between Michael and his mother had been her insistence he take Eudokia Dekapolitissa as his wife when he already had a mistress, one Eudokia Ingerina. In it, the regent holds Michael in her arms while she is adoringly surrounded by priests and martyrs. As hoped for, the late emperor was given a pardon and so avoided being forever mentioned alongside infamous heretics in church services thereafter. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in 840, Michael III had just turned two years old when he succeeded as sole emperor on January 20, 842. 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